Lesson 7: Packages, Software, Libraries

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Everything that isn't hardware.


$ ldd /usr/bin/nano
  linux-vdso.so.1 =>  (0x00007ffc1fdcd000)
  libncursesw.so.5 => /lib64/libncursesw.so.5 (0x00007ff2cfaee000)
  libtinfo.so.5 => /lib64/libtinfo.so.5 (0x00007ff2cf8c4000)
  libc.so.6 => /lib64/libc.so.6 (0x00007ff2cf500000)
  libdl.so.2 => /lib64/libdl.so.2 (0x00007ff2cf2fc000)
  /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x000055e46c4b4000)

Package Management

Package Management

Take care of installation and removal of software

Yum vs. Apt



Programming Language Package Managers


Other Package Managers

The Source-based package manager for Gentoo.
An Arch User Repository wrapper for Pacman, the Arch Linux Package manager.
A 'Fully Functional/Transactional' package manager.
An Open Source package manager for OSX.
A package manager for Windows.

Installation from Source

How to install a package from source:

  1. Download source code .zip (Zip) or .tar.xz/bz2/xz (Tarball).
  2. Unpack the downloaded code.
  3. Run the setup and configuration scripts.
  4. Build the program.
  5. Resolve any unmet dependencies and repeat previous two steps if it fails.
  6. Place the binaries in a consistent location.

Exercise: Install sl

  1. Install the git, gcc, make and ncurses-devel packages via package manager.
  2. Clone https://github.com/mtoyoda/sl.git using git
  3. Build the software using make
  4. Copy the compiled sl binary into the directory ~/local/bin/.
  5. Update your $PATH to include $HOME/local/bin
  6. Run 'whereis sl' to ensure it's in your path
  7. Run sl and see what happens!

Answer: Install sl

$ sudo yum install git gcc make ncurses-devel
$ git clone https://github.com/mtoyoda/sl.git
$ cd sl
$ make
gcc -O -o sl sl.c -lncurses
$ mkdir -p ~/local/bin
$ cp sl ~/local/bin/
$ echo "export PATH=$HOME/local/bin:$PATH" >> ~/.bashrc
$ source ~/.bashrc
$ whereis sl
sl: /home/dobc/local/bin/sl
$ sl

Exercise: Install grep

  1. Check the current version of grep
  2. Double check it's location using which
  3. Download the latest tarball: http://mirrors.kernel.org/gnu/grep/grep-3.1.tar.xz
  4. Unpack using tar
  5. cd into the unpacked folder
  6. Run './configure --prefix=$HOME/local/', 'make' and then 'make install'
  7. Run 'hash -r' to ensure your environment knows about the new binary
  8. Check the current version of grep (it should be 3.1 now!)
  9. Double check it's location using which

Answer: Install grep

$ grep --version
grep (GNU grep) 2.20
$ which grep
alias grep='grep --color=auto'
$ wget http://mirrors.kernel.org/gnu/grep/grep-3.1.tar.xz
$ tar -Jxvf grep-3.1.tar.xz
$ cd grep-3.1
$ ./configure --prefix=$HOME/local/
$ make
$ make install
$ hash -r
$ grep --version
grep (GNU grep) 3.1
$ which grep
alias grep='grep --color=auto'

Further Reading